the most potent stimulant of natural origin, is extracted
from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca), which
is indigenous to the Andean highlands of South America.
Natives in this region chew or brew coca leaves into a tea
for refreshment and to relieve fatigue, similar to the
customs of chewing tobacco and drinking tea or coffee.
cocaine was first isolated in the 1880s and used as a local
anesthetic in eye surgery. It was particularly useful in
surgery of the nose and throat because of its ability to
provide anesthesia, as well as to constrict blood vessels
and limit bleeding. Many of its therapeutic applications are
now obsolete due to the development of safer drugs.
cocaine is usually distributed as a white crystalline powder
or as an off-white chunky material. The powder, usually
cocaine hydrochloride, is often diluted with a variety of
substances, the most common being sugars such as lactose,
inositol, and mannitol, and local anesthetics such as
lidocaine. The adulteration increases the volume and thus
multiplies profits. Cocaine hydrochloride is generally
snorted or dissolved in water and injected. It is rarely
smoked because it is heat labile (destroyed by high
the chunk or "rock" form of cocaine, is a ready-to-use
freebase. On the illicit market, it is sold in small,
inexpensive dosage units that are smoked. Smoking delivers
large quantities of cocaine to the lungs, producing effects
comparable to intravenous injection. Drug effects are felt
almost immediately, are very intense, and are quickly over.
Once introduced in the mid-1980s, crack abuse spread rapidly
and made the cocaine experience available to anyone with $10
and access to a dealer. In addition to other toxicities
associated with cocaine abuse, cocaine smokers suffer from
acute respiratory problems including cough, shortness of
breath, and severe chest pains with lung trauma and
bleeding. It is noteworthy that the emergence of crack was
accompanied by a dramatic increase in drug abuse problems
and drug-related violence.
Paraphernalia used for smoking crack
intensity of the psychological effects of cocaine, as with
most psychoactive drugs, depends on the dose and rate of
entry to the brain. Cocaine reaches the brain through the
snorting method in three to five minutes. Intravenous
injection of cocaine produces a rush in 15 to 30 seconds,
and smoking produces an almost immediate intense experience.
The euphoric effects of cocaine are almost indistinguishable
from those of amphetamine, although they do not last as
long. These intense effects can be followed by a dysphoric
crash. To avoid the fatigue and the depression of coming
down, frequent repeated doses are taken. Excessive doses of
cocaine may lead to seizures and death from respiratory
failure, stroke, or heart failure. There is no specific
antidote for cocaine overdose.
is the second most commonly used illicit drug (following
marijuana) in the United States. According to the 2003
National Survey on Drug Use and Health, more than 34 million
Americans (14.7%) age 12 or older had used cocaine at least
once in their lifetime. There are no drugs approved for
replacement-pharmacotherapy (drugs taken on a chronic basis
as a substitute for the abused drug, like methadone for
heroin addiction). Cocaine addiction treatment relies
heavily on psychotherapy and drugs like antidepressants to
relieve some of the effects of cocaine abuse.
roxanne, rock, bones, bolo, freebase, redcaps, lump